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    The country also has numerous works of public art, statues, museums, and memorials see list of public art in Monaco.

    Monaco has ten state-operated schools, including: The flag of Monaco is one of the world's oldest national flag designs.

    Monaco is so old that it has outlived many of the nations and institutions that it has had relations with. Monaco made a special agreement with France in in which French customs laws apply in Monaco and its territorial waters.

    There are two embassies in Monaco: A recurring issue Monaco encounters with other countries is the attempt by foreign nationals to use Monaco to avoid paying taxes in their own country.

    There are no border formalities entering or leaving to France. For visitors a souvenir passport stamp is available on request at Monaco's tourist office.

    This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city-state.

    For other uses, see Monaco disambiguation. This section needs to be updated. See Monaco Organisation territoriale fr. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

    Law enforcement in Monaco and Military of Monaco. Land reclamation in Monaco. Religion in Monaco [] [c] Christianity.

    Catholic Church in Monaco. Rugby union in Monaco. List of museums in Monaco. Rail transport in Monaco. Foreign relations of Monaco. Geography portal Europe portal Mediterranean portal.

    Part of the EU Customs territory, administered as part of France. Administered as a part of France for taxation purposes. Retrieved 29 October The territory of the Principality forms a single commune.

    Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 15 November Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 3 August United Nations Statistics Division.

    Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 28 May The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton and Roquebrune.

    The Grimaldis of Monaco: The Birth of a Legend". Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 22 March Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 10 June La Mairie de Monaco.

    Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 24 December Archived from the original on 11 October Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original on 23 April Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 11 September Monaco Statistics — Principality of Monaco.

    Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 7 August Monte Carlo Daily Photo. Statistiques — et records in French. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 15 March We want more for Monaco".

    The tax haven where the jewels are real and the orgasms are fake". Retrieved 6 March The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 March Your source for Global Business Knowledge".

    Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 28 April Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 7 December Frommer's Provence and the Riviera Fifth.

    Archived PDF from the original on 26 July Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 24 February Government of the Principality of Monaco.

    Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 3 March Archived from the original on 9 November Archived from the original on 10 August Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 30 March Official Journal of the European Union.

    Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original PDF on 4 May Retrieved 10 September Find more about Monaco at Wikipedia's sister projects.

    Administrative divisions of Monaco. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. States with limited recognition.

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    Flag Coat of arms. Roman Catholicism official [4]. Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Paramount Pictures , Warner Bros. Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures.

    Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding. The deal was finalized on April 13, It will expire in June MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist , [] [] and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper , which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, The new MGM, under Barber and Birnbaum's control, focuses on co-investing on films made by another party, which handle all distribution and marketing for the projects.

    MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house production service.

    On October 3, , Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".

    In the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a syndicated court show. Orion Pictures name was extended in fourth quarter for smaller domestic and international video on demand and limited theatrical releases.

    In March , MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home entertainment, theatrical and television rights.

    This marks a return to domestic theatrical distribution for MGM and an expansion of Annapurna's distribution division, with MGM releasing approximately six to eight films per year on a limited basis and Annapurna releasing four to six films per year, in a combined slate of fourteen films.

    While the two companies will share costs for the joint venture's operations, Annapurna's distribution and marketing teams will support the MGM titles, which will be distributed under the MGM banner while Annapurna-produced films will continue to be distributed under its own banner.

    The two studios also launched Mirror , a releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to be released through existing studio partners, such as Warner Bros.

    It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures and future worldwide distributor plans for the James Bond franchise, which MGM also said will be announced "at a later date".

    Since August 22, , its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills, California. MGM planned to house a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building.

    In MGM announced that it was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was to be the first high-rise in Los Angeles to be completed in the 21st century.

    Upon the company's agreement to be its lead tenant halfway through the design building process, the structure became identified as the MGM Tower , [] opening in Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks.

    Seemingly no expense was spared, from the marble imported from Italy for MGM's area to the company's exclusive use of a dedicated private garage, security checkpoint, and elevator bank: One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a seat theater on the ground floor later taken over by International Creative Management in December The 14th floor lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for Academy Award -winning films.

    The street leading to the building's garage was renamed MGM Drive and a large MGM logo, illuminated at night, crowned the top of the building.

    Larry Kozmont, a real estate consultant not involved in the process, said "It's a prudent move for them. Downsizing and relocating to a space that is still prominent but not overly ostentatious and burdened by expenses is fundamental for their survival.

    The studio's official motto , " Ars Gratia Artis ", is a Latin phrase meaning " Art for art's sake ". Through its acquisitions of many different companies and film and television libraries, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer has greatly enhanced its film and television holdings.

    Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer's library includes its own post-April library as well as the film and television libraries of:.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see MGM disambiguation. Marcus Loew Louis B. This section needs to be updated.

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    Greater Los Angeles portal Companies portal Film portal. Retrieved December 20, Retrieved September 20, Retrieved September 14, The Life and Legend of Louis B.

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    Retrieved May 12, The Making of the Wizard of Oz. Billboard Books, , The Lost Poems of Dorothy Parker 1st ed. Retrieved February 24, Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved June 1, How Hollywood Came to Television.

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    Edited by Duncan The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise, 1st ed. University of California Press. Retrieved January 23, A History of Cable Television.

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    Korea News Newspaper Co. Retrieved July 1, Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved February 26, Archived from the original on October 21, Retrieved September 24, Archived from the original on September 6, Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved June 28, Mom,' 'Idolmaker ' ".

    Retrieved January 22, Retrieved May 15, Where Will Land? Retrieved January 1, Winning the Distribution Rights to James Bond".

    Retrieved April 21, Retrieved June 30, Retrieved November 4, For the quarterly period ended June 30, " PDF. Archived from the original PDF on February 5, Los Angeles Business Journal.

    Retrieved February 5, Archived from the original on October 6, Retrieved October 20, Archived from the original on June 10, The Internship Bible 10th ed.

    Theory and Practical Approaches. Modernity and Mass Culture. The Book of Answers: The house that George Built: The Grove Book of Hollywood 1st ed.

    The Arthur Freed Unit 1st ed. The Wizardry of Oz: Sex, Immorality, and Insurrection in American Cinema, — American Cinema of the s: New Brunswick, New Jersey: Dancing in the Dark with Howard Dietz.

    All the Stars in Heaven: Mayer's MGM 1st ed. Retrieved April 2, Who Owns What Today". Retrieved March 20, Retrieved June 10, Retrieved May 31,

    For visitors a souvenir passport stamp is available on request at Monaco's tourist office. This is located on the far side of the gardens that face the Casino.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the city-state. For other uses, see Monaco disambiguation. This section needs to be updated.

    See Monaco Organisation territoriale fr. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. Law enforcement in Monaco and Military of Monaco.

    Land reclamation in Monaco. Religion in Monaco [] [c] Christianity. Catholic Church in Monaco. Rugby union in Monaco.

    List of museums in Monaco. Rail transport in Monaco. Foreign relations of Monaco. Geography portal Europe portal Mediterranean portal.

    Part of the EU Customs territory, administered as part of France. Administered as a part of France for taxation purposes. Retrieved 29 October The territory of the Principality forms a single commune.

    Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 May Retrieved 18 July Archived from the original on 15 November Retrieved 15 November Retrieved 7 June Retrieved 3 August United Nations Statistics Division.

    Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 28 May The Grimaldi family was not able to permanently secure their holding until when they purchased Monaco, along with two neighbouring villages, Menton and Roquebrune.

    The Grimaldis of Monaco: The Birth of a Legend". Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 29 June Retrieved 29 June Archived from the original on 3 June Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 22 March Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 31 August Archived from the original on 4 September Retrieved 8 August Archived from the original on 10 June La Mairie de Monaco.

    Archived from the original on 15 May Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 24 December Archived from the original on 11 October Archived from the original on 30 May Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 6 September Archived from the original on 23 April Archived from the original on 6 December Retrieved 11 September Monaco Statistics — Principality of Monaco.

    Archived from the original on 20 June Retrieved 7 August Monte Carlo Daily Photo. Statistiques — et records in French. Archived from the original PDF on 27 February Retrieved 26 February Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 2 March Retrieved 15 March We want more for Monaco".

    The tax haven where the jewels are real and the orgasms are fake". Retrieved 6 March The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 March Your source for Global Business Knowledge".

    Archived from the original on 11 July Retrieved 28 April Archived from the original on 14 November Retrieved 27 April Retrieved 7 December Frommer's Provence and the Riviera Fifth.

    Archived PDF from the original on 26 July Retrieved 23 May Retrieved 28 August Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 24 February Government of the Principality of Monaco.

    Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Retrieved 7 October Retrieved 4 July Archived from the original on 3 March Archived from the original on 9 November Archived from the original on 10 August Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 4 June Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 25 May Archived from the original on 11 May Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 18 June Archived from the original on 11 November Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 18 March Retrieved 30 March Official Journal of the European Union.

    Archived from the original on 8 June Retrieved 12 September Archived from the original PDF on 4 May Retrieved 10 September Find more about Monaco at Wikipedia's sister projects.

    Administrative divisions of Monaco. Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe. States with limited recognition.

    Faroe Islands 1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark. Svalbard unincorporated area subject to the Svalbard Treaty. Capitals of European states and territories.

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    List of international rankings List of top international rankings by country Lists by country. Retrieved from " https: Monaco Capitals in Europe City-states French-speaking countries and territories Italian-speaking countries and territories Massalian colonies Member states of the Council of Europe Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie Member states of the Union for the Mediterranean Member states of the United Nations Port cities of the Mediterranean Sea Principalities Romance countries and territories States and territories established in Countries in Europe Christian states Western European countries Axis powers.

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    Flag Coat of arms. Roman Catholicism official [4]. Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Former municipality of Monaco.

    Former municipality of Monte Carlo. Former municipality of La Condamine. Contains the Jardin Exotique de Monaco. New land reclaimed from the sea.

    Monaco website sun only []. Outline Index Category Portal. Denmark Faroe Islands 1 autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark. Mayer , Loew addressed the situation by buying Louis B.

    Mayer Pictures on April 17, MGM produced more than feature films in its first two years. Marcus Loew died in , and control of Loew's passed to Nicholas Schenck.

    Mayer and Thalberg disagreed with the decision. Mayer was active in the California Republican Party and used his political connections to persuade the Justice Department to delay final approval of the deal on antitrust grounds.

    During this time, in the summer of , Fox was badly hurt in an automobile accident. By the time he recovered, the stock market crash in the fall of had nearly wiped Fox out and ended any chance of the Loew's merger going through.

    Schenck and Mayer had never gotten along Mayer reportedly referred to his boss as "Mr. From the outset, MGM tapped into the audience's need for glamor and sophistication.

    Having inherited few big names from their predecessor companies, Mayer and Thalberg began at once to create and publicize a host of new stars, among them Greta Garbo , John Gilbert , William Haines , Joan Crawford , and Norma Shearer who followed Thalberg from Universal.

    The arrival of talking pictures in —29 gave opportunities to other new stars, many of whom would carry MGM through the s: MGM was one of the first studios to experiment with filming in Technicolor.

    In , MGM released The Viking , the first complete Technicolor feature with sound including a synchronized score and sound effects, but no spoken dialogue.

    With the arrival of talkies , MGM moved slowly and reluctantly into sound, releasing features like White Shadows in the South Seas with music and sound effects, and Alias Jimmy Valentine with limited dialogue sequences.

    Their first full-fledged talkie, the musical The Broadway Melody in , however, was both a box-office success and won the Academy Award as Best Picture of the Year; and brought MGM into the sound era.

    MGM, however, was the very last studio to convert to " talkies " with its first all-color, "all-talking" sound feature with dialogue The Rogue Song , a musical.

    The studio then produced a number of three-color short subjects including 's musical La Fiesta de Santa Barbara , but waited until to film a complete feature in the process, Sweethearts with MacDonald and Nelson Eddy, the earlier of the popular singing team's two films in color.

    From then on, MGM regularly produced several films a year in Technicolor with Northwest Passage being one of the most notable.

    In , MGM purchased the rights to Our Gang and moved the production in-house, [32] continuing production of the successful series of children's comedies until From to , MGM produced a series of comedy shorts called All Barkie Dogville Comedies , in which trained dogs were dressed up to parody contemporary films and were voiced by actors.

    These records were sold only at Loew's theaters. Columbia also created a label called Publix for Paramount music and sold only at Paramount Theaters.

    MGM produced approximately 50 pictures a year, though it never met its goal of releasing a new motion picture each and every week It was only able to release one feature film every nine days.

    A fine reputation was gained for lavish productions that were sophisticated and polished to cater to an urban audience. Still, as the Great Depression deepened, MGM began to economize by "recycling" existing sets, costumes, and furnishings from yesteryear projects.

    This recycling practice never let up once started. In addition, MGM saved money because it was the only one of the big five studios that did not own an off-site movie ranch.

    Until the mids, MGM could make a claim its rivals could not: It was the only Hollywood studio that continued to pay dividends during the s.

    MGM stars dominated the box office during the s, and the studio was credited for inventing the Hollywood stable of stars system, as well.

    Shearer was still a money maker despite screen appearances becoming scarce, and Crawford continued her box-office power until Mayer and Irving Thalberg's relationship began warmly, but eventually the two became estranged; Thalberg preferred literary works to the crowd-pleasers Mayer wanted.

    Thalberg, always physically frail, was removed as head of production in Mayer encouraged other staff producers, among them his son-in-law David O.

    Selznick, but no one seemed to have the sure touch of Thalberg. As Thalberg fell increasingly ill in , Louis Mayer could now serve as his temporary replacement.

    Rumors began circulating that Thalberg was leaving to set up his own independent company; [ citation needed ] his early death in , at age 37, cost MGM dearly.

    After Thalberg's untimely death, Mayer became head of production, as well as studio chief, becoming the first million-dollar executive in American history.

    Also playing a huge role was Ida Koverman, Mayer's secretary and right hand. Selznick , Mayer's son-in-law, to obtain the services of Gable as well as financial assistance to complete the film.

    Within one year, beginning in , Mayer released his five highest-paid actresses from their studio contracts: After a two-year hiatus, Crawford moved to WB, where her career took a dramatic upturn.

    Shearer and Garbo never made another film after leaving the lot. Of the five stars, Loy and MacDonald were the only two whom Mayer rehired, in and respectively.

    Increasingly, before and during World War II, Mayer came to rely on his "College of Cardinals" — senior producers who controlled the studio's output.

    This management-by-committee resulted in MGM losing its momentum, developing few new stars and relying on the safety of sequels and bland material.

    Dorothy Parker memorably referred to it as "Metro-Goldwyn-Merde. After , production was cut from 50 pictures a year to a more manageable 25 features per year.

    Audiences began drifting to television in the late s. MGM found it difficult to attract them to theaters. With its high overhead expenses, MGM's profit margins continued to decrease.

    Word came from Nicholas Schenck in New York: Mayer thought he had found this savior in Dore Schary , a writer and producer who had found success at running RKO.

    One bright spot was MGM musical pictures, under the aegis of producer Arthur Freed, who was operating what amounted to an independent unit within the studio.

    MGM produced some well-regarded and profitable musicals that would be later acknowledged as classics, among them An American in Paris , Singin' in the Rain , and Seven Brides for Seven Brothers However, Brigadoon , Deep in My Heart , It's Always Fair Weather , and Invitation to the Dance , were extravagant song and dance flops, and even the now-classic The Band Wagon lost money in its initial release.

    Movie audiences more and more were staying home and watching television. In , as a settlement of the government's restraint-of-trade action, United States v.

    As the studio system faded in the late s and s, MGM's prestige faded with it. In by coincidence, the year Mayer died , the studio lost money for the first time in its year history.

    Schary's reign at MGM had been marked with few bona-fide hits, but his departure along with the retirement of Schenck in left a power vacuum that would prove difficult to fill.

    Initially Joseph Vogel became president and Sol Siegel head of production. By , MGM had released all of its contract players, with many either retiring or moving on to television.

    Parade was canceled by ABC in the 2nd quarter of TV production was expect to start with the season and was to include half-hour remakes of or series based on its pictures.

    Initial feature film sales focused on selling to the networks. The year also marked the end of MGM's animation department, as the studio determined it could generate the same amount of revenue by reissuing older cartoons as it could by producing and releasing new ones.

    In a landmark event, the film became the first American theatrical fiction film to be shown complete in one evening on prime time television over a major American commercial network.

    Olivier's version of Hamlet was shown on prime time network TV a month later, but split in half over two weeks, and the film, The Titan: Story of Michelangelo was telecast by ABC in , but that was a documentary.

    Beginning in , and lasting until , telecasts of The Wizard of Oz became an annual tradition, drawing huge audiences in homes all over the U.

    The studio was all too happy to see Oz become, through television, one of the two or three most famous films MGM has ever made, and one of the few films that nearly everybody in the U.

    Today The Wizard of Oz is regularly shown on the Turner -owned channels, no longer just once a year. Gigi was a box-office and critical success which won nine Academy Awards , including Best Picture.

    In animation, MGM purchased the rights in to distribute a series of cartoons that starred a character named Flip the Frog , produced by Ub Iwerks.

    The first cartoon in this series entitled Fiddlesticks was the first sound cartoon to be produced in two-color Technicolor. In , Ub Iwerks cancelled the unsuccessful Flip the Frog series and MGM began to distribute its second series of cartoons, starring a character named Willie Whopper , that was also produced by Ub Iwerks.

    After initial struggles with a poorly received series of The Captain and the Kids cartoons, the studio rehired Harman and Ising in , and Ising created the studio's first successful animated character, Barney Bear.

    The Tom and Jerry cartoons won seven Academy Awards between and In , Tex Avery , another Schlesinger alumnus, joined the animation department. Avery left the studio in , leaving Hanna and Barbera to focus on the popular Tom and Jerry and Droopy series.

    In , MGM enjoyed what is quite probably its greatest financial success of later years, with the release of its nearly four-hour Technicolor epic Ben—Hur , a remake of its silent film hit, loosely based on the novel by General Lew Wallace.

    Starring Charlton Heston in the title role, the film was critically acclaimed, and won 11 Academy Awards, including Best Picture, a record that held until Titanic matched it in and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King in Although Deitch's Tom and Jerry cartoons were considered to be vastly inferior to the original Hanna and Barbera style of animation, they did receive positive reviews from certain fans.

    Jones' group also produced its own works, winning an Oscar for The Dot and the Line , as well as producing the classic television version of Dr. Seuss 's How the Grinch Stole Christmas!

    Tom and Jerry folded in , and the animation department continued with television specials and one feature film, The Phantom Tollbooth.

    During this period, MGM fell into a habit that would eventually sink the studio: However, four succeeding big-budget epics — like Ben—Hur , each a remake — failed: The Cinerama film The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm , the first film in Cinerama to actually tell a story, was also a flop.

    King of Kings , while a commercial and critical flop at the time, has since come to be regarded as a film classic. The losses caused by these films led to the resignations of Sol Siegel and Joseph Vogel who were replaced by Robert M.

    Weitman head of production and Robert O'Brien president. The combination of O'Brien and Weitman seemed to temporarily revive the studio.

    A Space Odyssey However the company's time was taken up fighting off proxy attacks by corporate raiders , and then MGM backed a series of flops, including Ryan's Daughter Weitman moved over to Columbia in and O'Brien was forced to resign a few years later.

    In the mids, MGM began to diversify by investing in real estate. As for film-making, that part of the company was quickly and severely downsized under the supervision of James T.

    With changes in its business model including fewer pictures per year, more location shooting and more distribution of independent productions, MGM's operations were reduced.

    Aubrey sold off MGM's accumulation of props, furnishings and historical memorabilia, including a pair of Dorothy's ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz.

    In , it was announced that MGM was in talks with 20th Century Fox about a possible merger, a plan which never came into fruition.

    Through the s, studio output slowed considerably as Aubrey preferred four or five medium-budget pictures each year along with a smattering of low-budget fare.

    The last shooting done on the backlot was the introductory material for That's Entertainment! However, MGM never reclaimed its former status.

    In , Kerkorian declared that MGM was now primarily a hotel company. The company hit a symbolic low point in when David Begelman , earlier let go by Columbia following the discovery of his acts of forgery and embezzlement, was installed as MGM's President and CEO.

    In , Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Inc. MGM proceeded to get back into theatrical distribution in with its purchase of United Artists, as UA's parent company Transamerica Corporation decided to let go of the studio following the failure of Heaven's Gate.

    Kerkorian offered to purchase the remaining outstanding MGM shares he did not own to take the company private but was met with resistance.

    After the purchase of United Artists, David Begelman's duties were transferred to that unit. Out of the 11 films he put into production, by the time of his release from the studio, only one film, Poltergeist , proved to be a clear hit.

    How much of MGM's back catalog Turner actually obtained was a point of conflict for a time; eventually, it was determined that Turner owned all of the pre-May MGM library, as well as the pre Warner Bros.

    Turner began broadcasting MGM films through his Turner Network Television , and caused a controversy when he began " colorizing " many black-and-white classics.

    The well-respected executive, Alan Ladd Jr. A television production division was started up. In , MGM had a hit in Stargate. By selling a portion of the studio to Australia's Seven Network , Kerkorian was able to convince Wall Street that a revived MGM was worthy of a place on the stock market, where it languished until he sold the company to a group of hedge funds tied to Sony, which wanted to control the studio library to promote the Blu-ray Disc format.

    Prior to that, MGM had held a home video license for of the films since spring In , MGM changed the way it distributed its products internationally.

    In , many of MGM's competitors started to make bids to purchase the studio, beginning with Time Warner. It was not unexpected that Time Warner would bid, since the largest shareholder in the company was Ted Turner.

    In , MGM announced it would return as a theatrical distribution company. MGM struck deals with The Weinstein Company , Lakeshore Entertainment , Bauer Martinez, and many other independent studios, and then announced its plans to release 14 feature films for and early MGM also hoped to increase the amount to over 20 by MGM also announced plans to restructure its worldwide television distribution operation.

    MGM served as New Line's barter sales representative in the television arena until A tentative agreement was signed in Seoul on March 15, , between MGM, South Korea-based entertainment agency Glovit and Busan city official for a theme park schedule to open in Wagner will serve as United Artists' chief executive.

    Over the next several years, MGM launched a number of initiatives in distribution and the use of new technology and media, as well as joint ventures to promote and sell its products.

    In April , it was announced that MGM movies would be able to be downloaded through Apple's iTunes service, with MGM bringing an estimated of its existing movies to iTunes service, the California-based computer company revealed.

    The selected site was a 1. Whether MGM could avoid voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy had been a topic of much discussion in the film industry.

    On August 17, , chief executive officer Harry E. Cooper as its new CEO, [8] [] [] a corporate executive who guided Enron through its post bankruptcy and oversaw the restructuring and growth of Krispy Kreme in MGM stated in February that the studio would likely be sold in the next four months, and that its latest film, Hot Tub Time Machine , might be one of the last four films to bear the MGM name.

    However, some stated that the company might continue as a label for new James Bond productions, as well as other movie properties culled from the MGM library.

    MGM Holdings, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and affiliates filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on November 3, , with a prepackaged plan for exiting bankruptcy which led to MGM's creditors taking over the company.

    Six days later, MGM was finalizing a distribution deal with Sony Pictures Entertainment to handle distribution of its 4, films and DVDs worldwide and on digital platforms, including the two upcoming Bond films: There were four studios who were bidding on the Bond distribution rights: Paramount Pictures , Warner Bros.

    Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and Columbia Pictures. Paramount was the first studio who dropped out of the Bond bidding.

    The deal was finalized on April 13, It will expire in June MGM moved forward with several upcoming projects, including remakes of RoboCop and Poltergeist , [] [] and released their first post-bankruptcy film Zookeeper , which was co-distributed by Columbia Pictures on July 8, The new MGM, under Barber and Birnbaum's control, focuses on co-investing on films made by another party, which handle all distribution and marketing for the projects.

    MGM handles international television distribution rights for the new films as well as its library of existing titles and also retains its in-house production service.

    On October 3, , Birnbaum announced his intention to exit his role as an MGM executive and return to "hands-on" producing. He will remain with the studio to produce films on "an exclusive basis".

    In the Orion brand was revived as a TV production label for a syndicated court show. Orion Pictures name was extended in fourth quarter for smaller domestic and international video on demand and limited theatrical releases.

    In March , MGM announced a multi-year distribution deal with Annapurna Pictures for some international markets and including home entertainment, theatrical and television rights.

    This marks a return to domestic theatrical distribution for MGM and an expansion of Annapurna's distribution division, with MGM releasing approximately six to eight films per year on a limited basis and Annapurna releasing four to six films per year, in a combined slate of fourteen films.

    While the two companies will share costs for the joint venture's operations, Annapurna's distribution and marketing teams will support the MGM titles, which will be distributed under the MGM banner while Annapurna-produced films will continue to be distributed under its own banner.

    The two studios also launched Mirror , a releasing entity for third-party films. However, this partnership will not be exclusive to all MGM films, as several of them will continue to be released through existing studio partners, such as Warner Bros.

    It also does not include newly relaunched Orion Pictures and future worldwide distributor plans for the James Bond franchise, which MGM also said will be announced "at a later date".

    Since August 22, , its headquarters have been in Beverly Hills, California. MGM planned to house a private theater and a private outdoor patio in the building.

    In MGM announced that it was moving its headquarters to a new building in Century City that was to be the first high-rise in Los Angeles to be completed in the 21st century.

    Upon the company's agreement to be its lead tenant halfway through the design building process, the structure became identified as the MGM Tower , [] opening in Scott Johnson, the architect, designed the bottom third of the tower with extra-large floors so MGM executives could have outdoor decks.

    Seemingly no expense was spared, from the marble imported from Italy for MGM's area to the company's exclusive use of a dedicated private garage, security checkpoint, and elevator bank: One of three screening rooms placed in the tower was a seat theater on the ground floor later taken over by International Creative Management in December The 14th floor lobby housed the executive suites and a wall of Oscar statuettes for Academy Award -winning films.

    The street leading to the building's garage was renamed MGM Drive and a large MGM logo, illuminated at night, crowned the top of the building.

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